LOCATION: By Language : Mathematical Symbols

More browsers and Web sites are targeting a Unicode solution which is described below, but workarounds may still be needed for older browsers.

- Recommended Browsers and Fonts for Unicode
- Inserting Symbols
- Web Development
- Superscript and Subscript
- Math ML
- Other Links

- Common Math Symbols Chart
- Greek Letter Unicode Chart
- Combining Diacritics - for
**x̄**and**p̂** - Alan Wood's Mathematical Operator Unicode table
- Inserting Formulas as Images
- PDF Files

The following Unicode fonts include a comprehensive set of mathematical characters and are free for academic use.

**Windows****- Arial Unicode MS, Cambria Math (Vista/Windows 7)****Macintosh OS X****- Apple Symbols**- STIX Fonts - OTF freeware font
- Arev Sans
- Unicode Symbols
- Hindsight Unicode
- CERG Chinese Font

The following browsers have the most consistent results

**Internet Explorer** is also viable, but more recent versions are recommended.

If the **"Text Version"** matches the **"Graphic Version",** your computer has a font with mathetical symbols installed.

Graphic Version | Text version (should match) |
---|---|

∀_{OS} (year(OS) ≥ 2001 | ∃Font ∋ (∛, ∬♁∰⦖,≈)) |

**Older versions of Internet Explorer for Windows** does not display mathematical symbols by default.
Users who prefer Internet Explorer for Windows should set the Latin font to Arial Unicode MS or some other Unicode script with math
symbol support.

**Internet Explorer for Macintosh** may not support all mathematical symbols.

For text documents, the following is recommended.

Use the Windows Character Map to insert mathematical symbols.

- Switch to a large Unicode font like Arial Unicode MS then scroll down to the appropriate script block.
- This tool may not function with some older programs which do not support Unicode input.

Use the Macintosh Character Viewer/Palette to insert mathematical symbols.

- Click the Mathematical Symbols or other block on the right to view symbols.
- This tool may not function with some older programs which do not support Unicode input.

No matter which method you use to create the document, the HTML page must be declared as a Unicode page with the following meta-tag.

<head>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">

...

</head>

Although it is generally not recommended to specify fonts for a language,
it may be necessary** in order to force Internet Explorer 5-6
to use the correct display fonts**.This can be done either via CSS
styles or via the FONT tag.

Below is the CSS style class listing some suggested font specifications.

.math {font-family: "Unicode Symbols", "Times New Roman", "Apple Symbols","Arial Unicode MS"}

Unicode Symbols is a freeware font with a very large set of symbol fonts included. Arial Unicode MS comes from Microsoft while Apple Symbols is provided by Apple.

The Times New Roman font on Windows and in newer Macs does include the basic Greek alphabet.

If you can use either the Windows Character Map or the Macintosh Character Viewer/Palette with Dreamweaver, Notepad (Win), Unipad (Win) or BBEdit (Mac) to insert mathematical symbols directly into the HTML.

However, you may get uneven results between browsers.

You can substitute numeric entity codes for the mathematical symbols. For example:

- square root -
**√****(&#radic;)** - cube root -
**∛****(∛)** - fourth root -
**∜****(∜)** - superscript 6 -
**⁶****(⁶)**

See the Math Symbol Unicode chart or Alan Wood's Mathematical Operator Unicode table for other common symbols.

You can use the <sup></sup> tag to create super script text and <sub></sub> to create sub-script text. See examples below:

**Code: **`x<sup>x+1</sup>`

**Result**: x^{x+1}

**Code: **`x<sub>i+1</sub>`

**Result**: x_{i+1}

See the Superscript page for additional options.

Math ML is an XML language designed to present complex equations. **MathML and HTML 5 combinations are supported,** but only in the most recent browsers (e.g Internet Explorer 9, Safari 5.1, Firefox 4+).

**For now it is recommended that:**

- Equations on one line (e.g.
**ƒ(x) = x² + x**) be formatted with HTML entity codes only instead of MathML. The syntax is usually simpler. - For more complex equations,
**images are still the most reliable method**of presenting equations . Make sure an ALT tag is included. - See information below if you wish to experiment with MathML.

- MathML Quick Tutorial
- W3C Math ML Home
- W3C Math ML Test Suite
- MIT MathML fonts for Mozilla/Firefox
- MathML Fonts for Mozilla/Firefox
- Math Player Plugin
**(Internet Explorer for Windows only)** - Rikkert Koppes Authoring Math ML

The following fonts are availble free for educational use and include most encoded mathematical and technical symbols.

- Penn State TLT Math Chart
- Jukka Korpela HTML Entities
- Ian Graham Mathemetical HTML Entities
- Alan Wood's Mathematical Operators Page
- Format Fractions with CSS

- W3C Math ML Home
- W3C Math ML Test Suite
- MathML Fonts for Mozilla
- Math Player Plugin
**(Internet Explorer 6 for Windows only)**

©Penn State University, 2000-2012.

This Web page maintained by Teaching and
Learning with Technology, a unit of Information
Technology Services. For questions or comments on this Web page, please
contact Elizabeth J. Pyatt (ejp10@psu.edu).

Unicode character names and hexadecimal entity codes are taken from the public Unicode Character Charts.