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Computing With Accents and Foreign Scripts
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Scottish Gaelic

See Also: Other Celtic Languages | Germanic Languages

Almost all applications support Gaelic accents. Guidelines for typing and using accents are given below. 

  1. About the Language
  2. Accent Codes
    1. Windows Alt Codes
    2. Windows International Keyboard
    3. Macintosh Accent Codes
  3. Gaelic or International Keyboards (New Page)
  4. HTML Accent Codes
    1. Languages Codes: gd (Gaelic), sco (Scots/Lallans)
  5. Linux Links

About Gaelic

Gaelic vs. Scots

Scottish Gaelic is a Goedelic Celtic language poken in the Scottish Highlands. Gaelic is closely related to Irish and more distantly related to Welsh, Breton and Cornish. In fact, many words in Irish and Gaelic are identical, but spelled with differently angled accents.

Note that there is also a language called Scots (Lallans) which is NOT Celtic, but a close relative of English. See the Old English page for information about Scots.

Gaelic Links

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Windows Alt Codes

In Windows, combinations of the ALT key plus a numeric code can be used to type a non-English character (accented letter or punctuation symbol) in any Windows application. More detailed instructions about typing accents with ALT keys are available.  Additional options for entering accents in Windows are also listed in the Accents section of this Web site.

Note: Modern Gaelic spelling only uses the grave accent, but older spellings included é and ó.

Alt Codes for typing Gaelic characters:
  Capital Vowels
À ALT+0192
È ALT+0200
É ALT+0201
Ì ALT+0204
Ò ALT+0210
Ó ALT+0211
Ù ALT+0217

 

  Lowercase Vowels
à ALT+0224
è ALT+0232
é ALT+0233
ì ALT+0236
ò ALT+0242
ó ALT+0243
ù ALT+0249
  Currency
£ ALT+0163
ALT+0128

 

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Windows International Keyboard Codes

In order to use these codes you must activate the international keyboard. Instructions are listed in the Keyboards section of this Web site.

Character Description
Grave (Backwards) Accent

(`+V) - Type grave key (upper right), then the vowel.

Acute (Forwards) Accent

('+V) - Type apostrophe (singe quote), then the vowel.

Currency

For these codes, you must make sure you use the Alt key on the right side of the keyboard.

  Currency
£ Control+RightAlt+4
Control+RightAlt+5

 

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Macintosh Accent Codes

Character Description
Grave (Backwards) Accent

Type Option+`, then then the vowel. For instance, to type à hold down Option+` then type lowercase A. To type À, hold down Option+`, then type capital A.

Acute (Forwards) Accent

Type Option+E, then the vowel.

£

Option+3

Shift+Control+2 (may not work for older System 9 fonts)

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HTML Accent Codes

Gaelic Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type fàilte you would type fàilte;.

The numbers in parentheses are the numeric codes assigned in Unicode encoding. For instance, because à is number 192, fÀilte can also be used to input fàilte. These numbers are also used with the Windows Alt codes listed above.

laquo and raquo are left and right double angle quotes
Alt Codes for typing Gaelic characters:
  Capital Vowels
À À (192)
È È (200)
É É (201)
Ì Ì (204)
Ò Ò (210)
Ó Ó (211)
Ù Ù (217)

 

  Lowercase Vowels
à à (224)
è è (232)
é é(233)
ì ì(236)
ò ò (242)
ó ó (243)
ù ù (249)
  Currency
£ £ (163)
€

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. In that case many Unicode characters could be displayed incorrectly. Also, older browsers such as Netscape 4.7 may not be able to process the entity codes correctly without the "utf-8" declaration.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Links

Linux/Unix

Most Linux or Unix information is in Gaelic.

Gaelic Links

 

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Last Modified: Monday, 19-Nov-2012 12:22:09 EST